National Health Programme

I. NATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAMME: THE POLICY OBJECTIVES AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES

1. PREREQUISITES FOR HEALTH

"Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."(5) Health also means the capacities and abilities to play useful roles in society, to adjust ourselves to environmental changes and to cope with all related problems.
The WHO strategy "Health for all by the year 2000" (adopted also in Poland(6)) and the philosophy of health promotion(7) underline that health is:

The quality of life should be considered as functional capacity throughout the all years of life, higher productivity, better wages and satisfaction from own life. To this end, one can agree with a saying: "good health is a good business". This saying speaks particularly for itself during the period of political, economic and social transformations, when more and more people become aware that ilness is not "worth while".
Health is not a static condition. Throughout the all years of life it must be:
Fundamental prerequisites for health are as follows: peace, sustainable economic development, a positive sense of global and local wellbeing and security, including ecological safety, decent housing, food, education, secure work and decent wages, social justice and equal opportunity for all.
There are four groups of factors which affect the human health:
The objectives and targets identified in the National Health Programme (NHP) focus on these three groups of factors indicated in Fig.1.

Fig. 1. Health determining factors.



National Health Programme

2. HEALTH PROMOTION

The modified National Health Programme is based on the health promotion concept and strategy.
Health promotion helps people:
Health promotion covers five areas of activities: Health promotion is also defined as a skill to intefere into social systems and to encourage people to promote healthy environment(8) . To this end, the NHP tends to "incorporate" health issues into different social systems (politics, economy, education, sport, science, family etc.) and their organizations by integrating health promotion with key objectives of a given system/organization.




National Health Programme

3. PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY

Each sector of economic and social policy (e.g. wages, taxes, social security, education, transport etc.) is related to health. Therefore, health policy should be developed at all levels and by all actors participating in public life. Bearing this in mind, the present NHP sets the objectives of the public health policy which has replaced the former idea of the state health policy. That permits to bring the governing mechanisms closer to people, moving them from the central level of the management and the state administration to the local level, commiting at the same time all people and public institutions.



National Health Programme

4. NATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAMME: THE POLICY OBJECTIVES AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES

The document specifies:
Many positive changes in the health status of the population are expected due to the accomplishment of tasks identified in accordance with each target. It is also hoped that adverse effects of major health problems will be also reduced.
All tasks identified are given the highest priority, and they serve as the basis for the development of detailed plans of action and various programmes to be implemented at all levels by individual sectors. Flexibility is one of essential features of the NHP. The Programme can be further modified, individual targets and tasks changed, their number extended or limited according to arising needs and health problems.
It should be also stressed that while developing the present version of the NHP an attempt has been made to define more precisely expected outcomes of actions planned with the aim to attain the policy objectives and expected health gain.
In addition, much concern has been given to monitoring and evaluation of the outcomes of individual actions and programmes(9). To this end, indicators currently available, and those likely to be introduced, such as target studies, analysis of public opinion etc., as well as sectors and institutions responsible for monitoring and evaluation are listed under each target.



National Health Programme